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GrazingHandbook.com was developed by Dr. Llewellyn L. Manske, Range Scientist at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center in Dickinson, North Dakota.

This collection of reports provides information enabling livestock producers and grassland managers to understand and operate twelve-month pasture-forage management strategies that are both biologically effective and economically efficient. The strategies presented are designed to meet the biological requirements of forage plants and facilitate ecological processes, to provide the nutrients range cows require during their production periods, to efficiently capture new economic wealth from land resources, to improve grassland habitat for wildlife, and to enhance the aesthetic appeal of grassland landscapes.

These reports are in PDF format and require Adobe Acrobat to view and print. If you do not already have Acrobat on your computer, click on the Acrobat icon to the left to download.

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Biologically Effective Management of Grazinglands
(Entire Report - 275 pages 2.55MB download)
  
Section 1
Rangelands of the Northern Plains
Northern Plains Rangelands
Prehistorical Conditions of Rangelands
Seasonal Weather Patterns
Soil Formation
Landscape Site Mangement Units
Vegetation of the Northern Plains
Problems Inherent in Grasslands
  
Section 2
Biology and Mangement of Grass Growth
Biological Requirements of Plants
Increasing Rhizosphere Fungi and Improving Soil Quality
Grass Growth in Height
Environmental Factors Affect Plant Growth
Grazing Starting Dates
Effects of Fall Grazing on Height
Effects from Long-Term Nongrazing
Effects of Grazing on Vegetation
Suppression of Grasshopper Population Numbers
Enhanced Biogeochemical Cycles and Improved Soil Structure
  
Section 3
Herbage Quality and Range Cow Requirements
Annual Nutritional Quality Curves
Grass Tillers Crude Protein
Annual Mineral Quality Curves
Range Cow Nutrient Requirements
Mineral Requirements for Grazing Beef Cows
  
Section 4
Twelve-Month Grazingland and Harvested Forage Management Strategies
Cow and Calf Performance on Grazing Strategies
Cow and Calf Performance on Fall Pastures
Costs-Returns on Grazing Strategies
Costs-Returns on Forage Strategies
   
Increasing Value Captured from the Land Natural Resources:
An Evaluation of Pasture Forage and Harvested Forage Management Strategies for Each Range Cow Production Period (451KB)
Introduction & Procedure
Dry Gestation Production Period
Third Trimester Production Period
Early Lactation Production Period
Spring Lactation Production Period
Summer Lactation Production Period
Fall Lactation Production Period
Selection of Low Cost-High Return Forage Types
12-month Forage Management Strategies
Literature Cited
  
Methods for Development of Biologically Effective Management Strategies (398KB)
   
Range Research Concise Communications 2001-2004
(Entire collection - 79 pages 328KB download)
   
Section 1
Value Capture from Land Resources
Rangelands are an important asset to the Northern Plains
Manage forage for nutrients not for dry matter production
Nutrients produced by forage plants are the primary unit of production in beef operations
Increasing value captured from grassland and forages boosts beef production profit margins
   
Section 2
Biology of Grass Plant Growth
Well-timed grazing can stimulate grass growth and tiller development
Manipulating grass plant growth can enhance forage production
Twice-over grazing system improves soil quality
Not all heavy grazing is overgrazing
Grazing fall green-up in pastures may take a bite out of next year’s production
Time of harvest is critical in minimizing hay cost
   
Section 3
Grazing Management Based on Grass Biological Requirements
Healthy grasslands will produce healthy profits for beef ranchers
Approach to reducing beef production costs challenges traditional assumptions
Deferred-type grazing systems reduce grass plant density and animal performance
Uninhibited sexual activity on the prairie reduces regional profits
Old-style pasture-forage management practices need to be culled
 
Section 4
Management to Reduce Impact from Drought
Healthy plants have smaller forage reductions during precipitation shortages
Drought emergency grazing practices will have costs next season
Management practices contributed to last summer’s herbage reductions
Pasture recovery from drought depends on previous management
Proper grazing management can minimize severity of problems during drought
 
Section 5
Grazing Management to Reduce Grasshoppers
Grazing management can reduce grasshopper problems
Grazing strategies offer natural grasshopper management
Grazing management can reduce grasshoppers while increasing beef production profits
 
Section 6
Biologically Effective 12-Month Pasture-Forage Management
Efficient 12-month pasture-forage management systems reduce beef production costs
Reducing pasture-forage costs for range cows during early lactation
Early grazing damages grass and reduces profits
Grazing native rangeland in May reduces ranch income
Native pasture is not the cheapest feed for range cows in May
Capturing more value from summer pastures improves beef profit margins
Coordinated rotational grazing can minimize late-season drop in animal performance
Extended fall grazing that improves profits
Reducing pasture-forage costs for cow-calf pairs during the fall
Feeding harvested forages cuts costs
Spring-seeded winter cereals can extend the Northern Plains grazing season
Harvesting more crude protein per acre reduces forage-feed costs
Not all harvested forages are expensive livestock feed
Is feeding beef cows during the nongrowing season an expense or an income?
Reducing forage feed costs for third-trimester range cows
Beef producers can generate greater economic wealth from the land resource
   
Literature Cited
   

Restoration of Degraded Prairie Ecosystems

Restoration of degraded prairie ecosystems
Prescribed burning treatments

Evaluation of Nitrogen Fertilization on Native Rangeland - Entire Report (494KB)

 

Preface

 

Circumstances that Impelled Fertilization Treatment Research on Native Rangeland

 

Evaluation of Nitrogen Fertilization Treatments on Native Rangeland

 

Nitrogen Fertilization on Native Rangeland with Ammonium Nitrate and Urea

 

Cost of Herbage Weight for Nitrogen Fertilization Treatments on Native Rangeland

 

Evaluation of Grazing Fertilized Native Rangeland Pastures

 

Fate of Applied Fertilizer Nitrogen on Native Rangeland

 

Evaluation of Plant Species Shift on Fertilized Native Rangeland

 

Influence of Soil Mineral Nitrogen on Native Rangeland Plant Water Use Efficiency and Herbage Production

 

Enhancement of the Nitrogen Cycle Improves Native Rangeland

   
 

Grazing management treatments - Research complettion expected 2011

   

Management of Western Snowberry aka Wolfberry and Buckbrush
(Entire collection - 108 pages 1.29MB download)

Western Snowberry Biology
Biological Management of Western Snowberry
Burning Management of Western Snowberry
Mechanical Management of Western Snowberry
Chemical Management of Western Snowberry
Effective Management of Western Snowberry
   
Chemical Management of Silver Sagebrush (162KB)
 

Evaluation of Alfalfa Interseeding Techniques
(Entire collection - 140 pages 10.6MB
download)

Concept Changes Regarding the Use of Interseeding Practices to Correct Problems in Grassland Ecosystems
Interseeding into Native Grassland with a Two-Row Lister Machine
Interseeding Machine Development by Modification of No-Till Drills
Evaluation of Alfalfa Varieties Solid Seeded into Cropland
Evaluation of Alfalfa Varieties Broadcast Sod-Seeded into Native Rangeland
Summary of the Development of the South Dakota State University Pasture Interseeding Machine
Evaluation of Alfalfa Varieties Interseeded into Grassland
Evaluation of Interseeding Row-Spacing Techniques
Evaluation of Interseeding Seedbed Preparation and Sod Control Techniques
Evaluation of Interseeding Fertilization-Rate Techniques
Evaluation of Interseeding Seeding-Date, Seeding-Rate, and Rhizobium-Inoculation Techniques
Techniques and Mechanical Processes for Interseeding Alfalfa into Grasslands
Evaluation of Grazing Alfalfa Interseeded Native Grassland Pastures