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GrazingHandbook.com was developed by Dr. Llewellyn L. Manske, Range Scientist at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center in Dickinson, North Dakota.

This collection of reports provides information enabling livestock producers and grassland managers to understand and operate twelve-month pasture-forage management strategies that are both biologically effective and economically efficient. The strategies presented are designed to meet the biological requirements of forage plants and facilitate ecological processes, to provide the nutrients range cows require during their production periods, to efficiently capture new economic wealth from land resources, to improve grassland habitat for wildlife, and to enhance the aesthetic appeal of grassland landscapes.

These reports are in PDF format and require Adobe Acrobat to view and print. If you do not already have Acrobat on your computer, click on the Acrobat icon to the left to download.

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Biologically Effective Managment of Grazinglands

Biologically Effective Management of Grazinglands
(Entire Report - 10.6 MB download)
Section 1
Rangelands of the Northern Plains
Contains 6 reports (from below) - 2.73 MB
Northern Plains Rangelands
Physiography, Soil, and Native Vegetation
Seasonal Weather Patterns
Soil Formation
Prehistorical Conditions of Rangelands
Problems Inherent in Grasslands
Section 2
Effects of Environmental Factors
Contains 6 reports (from below) - 1.6 MB
Climatic Factors Affect Plant Growth
Plant Water Stress Frequency and Periodicity
Grazing Starting Dates
Grass Growth in Height
Effects of Fall Grazing on Height
Proactive Management of Pest Grasshopper Habitat
Section 3
Effects of Partial Defoliation
Contains 5 reports (from below) - 1.8 MB
Grazing Effects on Rangeland Vegetation
Grazing Effects on Tillering and Rhizosphere Volume
Tillering Responses to Partial Defoliation
Tiller Initiation and Tiller Density
Forage Tiller Response to Partial Defoliation
Section 4
Effects of Grazing Management Treatments
Contains 2 reports (from below) - 4.34 MB
Cow and Calf Performance on Grazing Strategies
Cow and Calf Performance on Fall Pastures
Biogeochemical Processes of Prairie Ecosystems 2nd Ed.
(Entire Report - 10.13 MB download)
Biology of Defoliation by Grazing
Ectomycorrizal Fungi in Rhizosphere
Biogeochemical Model to Improve Soil Quality
Nitrogen Cycle on Rangelands
Mineral Nitrogen Threshold at 100 Pounds per Acre
Mineral Nitrogen Influence on Water Use Efficiency
Reduction of Detrimental Effects from Drought Conditions
Effects from Fire
Grazing and Burning Effects on Ecosystem Processes
Restoration of Degraded Prairie Ecosystems
Degradation and Biological Restoration of Prairie Ecosystems
Perpetually Sustainable Grazingland Ecosystems
Initial Restoration Changes of Degraded Ecosystems
Management Based on Ecosystem Mechanisms and Processes
Evaluation and Development of Forage Management Strategies for Range Cows
(Entire Report - 4.18 MB download)
Efficient Management Strategies for Range Cows
Section 1
Herbage Quality and Range Cow Requirements
Contains 3 reports (from below) - 2.97 MB
Annual Nutritional Quality Curves
Annual Mineral Quality Curves
Mineral Requirements for Grazing Beef Cows
Section 2
Increasing Value Captured From the Land
Contains 5 reports (from below) - 1.09 MB
Capturing Greater Wealth from the Land
Old Style Range Cow vs Modern Range Cow
Range Cow Nutrient Requirements
Costs and Returns for Twelve Month Forage Management Strategies
Cost and Returns for Nongrowing Season Forage Management Strategies
Methods for Development of Biologically Effective Management Strategies
(Entire Report - 578 KB download)
Mismatch of Modern Beef Cattle Fed by Traditional Management Practices
Implementation of Biologically Effective Grazing Management Strategies

Methods for Conducting Pasture and Forage Inventories

Generalized Landscape Management Units

Simplified Assessment of Rangeland Health Condition

Animal Unit Equivalent for Beef Cattle Based on Metabolic Weight

Length of the Average Grazing Season Month

Generalized Average Stocking Rates

Method to Determine Stocking Rate

Determination of 12-Month Nutrient Requirements for Beef Cows

Reducing Beef Production Costs by Reducing Nutrient Costs

Grassland Ecosystem Monitoring

Methods for Comparisons of Costs and Returns for Forage Types

Increasing Value Captured from the Land Natural Resources 3rd Ed.
(Entire Report - 5.77 MB download)
Introduction and Procedure
Dry Gestation Production Period
Third Trimester Production Period
Early Lactation Production Period
Spring Lactation Production Period
Summer Lactation Production Period
Fall Lactation Production Period
Selection of Low Cost-High Return Forage Types
12-Month Forage Management Strategies
Evaluation of Late Calving during Early May to Late June
(Entire Report - 251 KB download)
Effects on Steer and Heifer Weight Gain
Effects on Calves Born during the Early, Middle, and Late Periods